Origen was alleged to have taken this literally. Ouch. Guess he didn't have St. Augustine's strength :-) Though from what I understand, it works for people who have trouble controlling lust. The Czech Republic allows sex offenders to volunteer for surgical castration, and these volunteers have extremely low rates of repeat offenses.
Who's in the pic? (coming from a product of the American education system)
Robert, the chap in the painting (I don't know the artist) is Farinelli, one of the greatest castrati of the Baroque operatic stage, and arguably one of the greatest voices of all time.